Saturday, July 25, 2020

What is hepatitis? and what are Types of hepatitis ?

What is hepatitis?  and what are Types of hepatitis ?
Any thing which causes  liver to be inflamed which manifests  as abnormal liver functional test is hepatitis
Commonest  causes of hepatitis is viral hepatitis  the causes are  
non alcoholic fatty liver diseases
as well as drugs induced.
Viral hepatitis
Hepatitis can be  either  acute  or chronic 
We  need to understand  that different  type of virus causes different  type of viral hepatitis  in which  A  AND  E  cause  acute one  whereas   B and C cause chronic  hepatitis.
Once you have  hepatitis its  lasts  for  less than 6  month  than that is  acute  hepatitis  while 
if you have chronic hepatitis  the  infection lasts for more than 6 month and  keeps on infecting  then it is chronic hepatitis.
Overall  viral Hepatitis is a major health problem in india so much so  that is equals  to big three disease and morbidity caused by malaria tb and  hiv is  equals  to  the death by the  hepatitis  virus alone.
Viral hepatitis have 5  virus   types , it categories into  A B  C  D E .
Hepatitis  D   is not very important as  it hardly exists in our country.
 acute  Hepatitis is broadly classified into two categories  A and E  these are transmitted by faeco-oral  transmission  that’s means by food and  water .
B and c can be clubbed together  these two are transmitted by parental transmission  that means  the blood transfussion  is needed.

Hepatitis A
The over all prevalence  of   Hepatitis A   is  1-2 % in our country.
  seroprevelence : 90 % children have antibodies means  in childhood most of the   people and  children is  getting infected by it  and it is cleared That is asymptomatic .
once  it happens in adult than it can causes serious illness  like liver disease and jaundice
the good  part is  that even in adult  99 %  off the  the virus  is cleared is own while  only 1%  left with some  serious complications..

Hepatitis  A only causes problem in patients who have preexisting liver diseases lets some have CLD kidney diseases  or some other immune compromise situation then only cause serious problem  only in acute situations.
Hepatitis B
is basically prenatally  transmitted virus means it can only transmitted by blood contact by  or  by sexual contact or scratche.
this is both acute and chronic hepatitis

in  acute hepatitis  cases  its 1/4th are caused by  hepatitis B virus.
IN chronic:   60-70 % in india with chronic case are  hepatitis  B as a main  cause.
Hepatitis  B infection commonly leads into chronic  and that turns into  cirrhosis also  hepatic cellular carcinoma.
Hepatitis  C 
again like hepatitis  b  hepatitis c prenatally transmitted  either by  blood  or sexual  contacts.
again hepatitis.B and C  causes  majority of cirrhosis.
C  is also the cause of hepatocelluar carcinoma in india . prevalence of    B  is  more  than c
Both of them are leading cause of morbidity or hepatocellular   cancer in india

Hepatis E
Like hepatitis  A  , hepatitis  E  is  also  caused by contamination of food  and  water.
The prevalence is not very high but happens in epidemic or sporadic like specific area
Like in flood  or rainy seasons OR from one contaminated source.
And  the difference between   A and E , the E  the hepatitis  adds to  more serious , and this  causes acute liver failure
Hepatitis  A is almost self healing in children,but dangerous in adults.


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